Direct & Indirect Speech

 

Types of speech 

 
There are two types of speech - 
 
1. Direct Speech
2. Indirect Speech
 
 
Direct Speech - 
Direct Speech is that in which we use quotation marks and repeat exactly the same words as that person said or wrote them.
 
Indirect Speech - 
Indirect Speech is that which is without the use of quotation marks and is used to put someone else's words into our own sentence.
 
 
 
There are some differences between Direct speech and Indirect Speech - 
 
1. In Direct speech, quotation is in quotation marks where as in Indirect speech, quotation is not in quotation marks.
 
2. In Direct speech, said is separated from the quotation by a comma where as in Indirect speech, no comma is used.
 
3. In Direct speech, that is not used before quotation where as in Indirect speech, that is used to introduce quotation.
 
4. In Direct speech, quotation begins with Capital letter where as in Indirect speech, quotaion begins with owercase letter.
 
5. In Direct speech, quotation is in present tense where as in Indirect speech, quotation is in past tense.
 
 
 
 
Some conversion rules are used while converting Direct Speech to Indirect Speech - 
 
 
Tense of the Quotation will change as shown below - 
 
Simple Present ------- Simple Past
 
Simple Past ---------- Past Perfect
 
Present Perfect ------- Past Perfect
 
Present Continuous --- Past Continuous
 
Past Continuous ------ Past Perfect Continous
 
Future (Will) ---------- Would + Ist Form of Verb
 
Future (going to) ------ Past Continuous
 
Auxuliary + Verb ------ Simple Past
 
Imperative ----------- Infinitve
 
 
In case Modal constructions are used in Quotaion then, convert the form of Modal into past form. Some are as shown below - 
 
Can - Could
 
May - Might
 
Might - Might
 
Must - Must
 
Have to - Had to
 
Should - Should
 
Ought to - Ought to
 
 
Tense of the part of the sentence before quotation does not change while converting Direct speech to Indirect speech. Some are as shown below -  
 
Simple Present + Simple Present(Quotation) ----------- Simple Present + Simple Present(Quotation)
 
Present Perfect + Simple Present(Quotation) ----------- Present Perfect + Simple Present(Quotation)
 
Past Continuous + Simple Past(Quotation) ------------- Past Continuous + Simple Past(Quotation)
 
Past Continuous + Past Perfect(Quotation) ------------- Past Continuous + Past Perfect(Quotation)
 
Future + Simple Present(Quotation) ------------------- Future + Simple Present(Quotation)